This analysis of the Milky Way Galaxy is the heart of the CFD model, which dispenses with the need for dark matter. As with the Gravity page, the assumptions below are followed by a single, simple diagram.
1. The diagram below of the Milky Way Galaxy demonstrates that a galaxy is conceptually similar, on a large scale, to a large planet of low density; gravity therefore operates in a manner similar to that of a planet. The Milky Way is “100K” (one hundred thousand) light years across. Given that a light year measures six trillion miles, the distance across the galaxy is 600 quadrillion miles, where a quadrillion is a trillion times a thousand. The straight line drawn passes through both the super massive black hole at the center and our Sun. The radius of the Milky Way is 50K light years. The Sun, in round numbers, is represented as 25K light years away from the center.
2. The Sun orbits at 250 kilometers/second, but, based on our understanding of gravity, the speed should be only 160 kilometers/second. (This is cited as item 1 on both the “Data” and “Sources” pages.) This discrepancy in orbital speed is an illustration of the “rotation curve," and the proposed explanation is “dark matter.”
3. The Sun, given its location in the Milky Way, (using rounded numbers) is subject to an unbalanced force resulting from the greater weakening of universe waves from one side of the galaxy (shown on the right), a distance of 75K light years versus, versus the other side, a distance of 25K light years. This is a difference of 50K light years, or 300 quadrillion miles. a. Over this enormous incremental range, there is probably no clear path that avoids multiple bodies, even if they are very widely separated. These bodies include black holes, stars, nebulae, the interstellar medium and countless solar systems. b. The waves that impact the Sun from the left are stronger than those from the right. The Sun, therefore, to maintain its orbit, requires a greater velocity than is assumed in standard galactic celestial mechanics. c. The gravity of individual objects such as the Sun and the planets, however, would still be determined as specified in the previous page on “Gravity.” d. Dark matter seems to be a "plug factor" that adjusts gravity equations that don’t work. To paraphrase one skeptical commentator: How much dark matter do you want and where do you want it?
We can extend this analysis to the entire universe, specifically the expansion of the universe, presumed to be caused by dark energy. For the universe as a whole, gravity, which results from outgoing waves, is a repulsive force. It therefore explains dark energy, and, because of the almost infinite number of galaxies, would be present even in areas where no galaxies are visible.